What is Manifold?

Manifold is a Java compiler plugin. It supplements Java with:

All fully supported in Java 8 - 19 with comprehensive IDE support in IntelliJ IDEA and Android Studio. Manifold consists of a set of modules, one for each feature. Simply add the Manifold dependencies of your choosing to your existing project and begin taking advantage of them.

What’s New…

Tuple expressions

var t = (person.name, person.age); // tuple expression   
out.println("Name: " + t.name + " Age: " + t.age);

Type inference with auto

auto is like var but also works with fields and method return types

Multiple return values

 return min, max;

What can you do with Manifold?


Use the framework to gain direct, type-safe access to any type of resource, such as GraphQL, JSON, XML, YAML, CSV, and even other languages such as JavaScript. Remove the code gen step in your build process.   Check it out!

GraphQL: Use types defined in .graphql files directly, no code gen steps! Make GraphQL changes and immediately use them with code completion.

var query = MovieQuery.builder(Action).build();
var result = query.request("http://com.example/graphql").post();
var actionMovies = result.getMovies();
for (var movie : actionMovies) {
    "Title: " + movie.getTitle() + "\n" +
    "Genre: " + movie.getGenre() + "\n" +
    "Year: " + movie.getReleaseDate().getYear() + "\n");

JSON: Use .json schema files directly and type-safely, no code gen steps! Find usages of .json properties in your Java code.

// From User.json
User user = User.builder("myid", "mypassword", "Scott")
  .withDob(LocalDate.of(1987, 6, 15))

Extension Methods

Add your own methods to existing Java classes, even String, List, and File. Eliminate boilerplate code.   Check it out!

String greeting = "hello";
greeting.myMethod(); // Add your own methods to String!


Eliminate boilerplate getter/setter code, improve your overall dev experience with properties.

public interface Book {
  @var String title; // no more boilerplate code!
// refer to it directly by name
book.title = "Daisy";     // calls setter
String name = book.title; // calls getter 
book.title += " chain";   // calls getter & setter

Additionally, the feature automatically infers properties, both from your existing source files and from compiled classes your project uses. Reduce property use from this:

Actor person = result.getMovie().getLeadingRole().getActor();
Likes likes = person.getLikes();
likes.setCount(likes.getCount() + 1);

to this:


Operator Overloading

Implement operator methods on any type to directly support arithmetic, relational, index, and unit operators.

// BigDecimal expressions
if (bigDec1 > bigDec2) {
  BigDecimal result = bigDec1 + bigDec2;
// Implement operators for any type
MyType value = myType1 + myType2;

Tuple expressions

Tuple expressions provide concise syntax to group named data items in a lightweight structure.

var t = (name: "Bob", age: "35");
System.out.println("Name: " + t.name + " Age: " + t.age);

var t = (person.name, person.age);
System.out.println("Name: " + t.name + " Age: " + t.age);

You can also use tuples with new auto type inference to enable multiple return values from a method.

Unit Expressions

Unit or binding operations are unique to the Manifold framework. They provide a powerfully concise syntax and can be applied to a wide range of applications.

import static manifold.science.util.UnitConstants.*; // kg, m, s, ft, etc
Length distance = 100 mph * 3 hr;
Force f = 5.2 kg m/s/s; // same as 5.2 N
Mass infant = 9 lb + 8.71 oz;


Easily work with the Range API using unit expressions. Simply import the RangeFun constants to create ranges.

// imports the `to`, `step`, and other "binding" constants
import static manifold.collections.api.range.RangeFun.*;
for (int i: 1 to 5) {

for (Mass m: 0kg to 10kg step 22r unit g) {


Use the manifold-science framework to type-safely incorporate units and precise measurements into your applications.

import static manifold.science.util.UnitConstants.*; // kg, m, s, ft, etc.
Velocity rate = 65mph;
Time time = 1min + 3.7sec;
Length distance = rate * time;


Use familiar directives such as #define and #if to conditionally compile your Java projects. The preprocessor offers a simple and convenient way to support multiple build targets with a single codebase.   Check it out!

  public void setTime(LocalDateTime time) {...}
  public void setTime(Calendar time) {...}

Structural Typing

Unify disparate APIs. Bridge software components you do not control. Access maps through type-safe interfaces.   Check it out!

Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();
MyThingInterface thing = (MyThingInterface) map; // O_o
thing.setFoo(new Foo());
Foo foo = thing.getFoo();
out.println(thing.getClass()); // prints "java.util.HashMap"

Type-safe Reflection

Access private features with @Jailbreak to avoid the drudgery and vulnerability of Java reflection.   Check it out!

@Jailbreak Foo foo = new Foo();
// Direct, *type-safe* access to *all* foo's members
foo.privateMethod(x, y, z);
foo.privateField = value;

Checked Exception Handling

You now have an option to make checked exceptions behave like unchecked exceptions! No more unintended exception swallowing. No more try/catch/wrap/rethrow boilerplate!

List<String> strings = ...;
List<URL> urls = strings.stream()
  .map(URL::new) // No need to handle the MalformedURLException!

String Templates

Embed variables and expressions in String literals, no more clunky string concat!   Check it out!

int hour = 15;
// Simple variable access with '$'
String result = "The hour is $hour"; // Yes!!!
// Use expressions with '${}'
result = "It is ${hour > 12 ? hour-12 : hour} o'clock";

A Java Template Engine

Author template files with the full expressive power of Java, use your templates directly in your code as types. Supports type-safe inclusion of other templates, shared layouts, and more.   Check it out!

List<User> users = ...;
String content = abc.example.UserSample.render(users);

A template file abc/example/UserSample.html.mtl

<%@ import java.util.List %>
<%@ import com.example.User %>
<%@ params(List<User> users) %>
<html lang="en">
<% for(User user: users) { %> 
  <% if(user.getDateOfBirth() != null) { %>
    User: ${user.getName()} <br>
    DOB: ${user.getDateOfBirth()} <br>
  <% } %>
<% } %>

IDE Support

Use the Manifold plugin to fully leverage Manifold with IntelliJ IDEA and Android Studio. The plugin provides comprehensive support for Manifold including code completion, navigation, usage searching, refactoring, incremental compilation, hotswap debugging, full-featured template editing, integrated preprocessor, and more.

manifold ij plugin

Get the plugin from JetBrains Marketplace:


The Manifold project consists of the core Manifold framework and a collection of sub-projects implementing SPIs provided by the core framework. Each project consists of one or more dependencies you can easily add to your project:

Manifold : Core

Manifold : Java Extensions

Manifold : Java Properties

Manifold : GraphQL
Manifold : JSON
Manifold : XML
Manifold : YAML
Manifold : CSV
Manifold : Property Files
Manifold : Image
Manifold : Dark Java
Manifold : JavaScript

Manifold : Java Templates

Manifold : String Interpolation
Manifold : (Un)checked Exceptions

Manifold : Preprocessor

Manifold : Science

Manifold : Collections
Manifold : I/0
Manifold : Text

Experiment with sample projects:


Manifold supports:

Comprehensive IDE support is also available for IntelliJ IDEA and Android Studio.


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